Good Writing Skill in Modern English Language

Good Writing
English Writing

The art of writing depends on numerous techniques. Thus this is a well defined science. Good writing is a rational activity―thinking, writing and revision. A good writer does all the three acts together. Again and again he revises it to achieve some degree of perfection, and to make it intelligible and rhythmic for the reader. Continue reading “Good Writing Skill in Modern English Language”

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Mythical Yamuna River

The Yamuna, although a tributary of the Ganga, is virtually a river by itself. The river has been referred to in the ancient epic the Mahabharata besides numerous Puranas. The Yamuna is also known as Jamuna. The goddess of the river Yamuna is known as ‘Yami’. According to the Bhagavat Purana, she is the sister of Yama, the god of death. She is the daughter of the Sun (Surya) god, and his wife Sanjana. Yamuna is also connected to the religious beliefs surrounding Krishna.

The Yamuna originates less than a hundred miles east of the source of Bhagirathi from the Bundar Poonch glacier located in the district of Uttarkashi in the state of Uttarakhand. It grows from Yamunotri, in the Himalayas and flows parallel to the Ganga and a little to the south for most of its course before merging with the Ganges. The Yamuna traverses a total length of around 1370 kilometres or 851 miles before it merges.

The river flows towards the south direction through the Himalayan foothills and onto the plains of north India along the Uttar Pradesh and Haryana state border. Besides being a major tributary of river Ganges, Yamunotri is also a holy place of the Hindus. In the upper course of 200 kilometres, Yamuna draws water from several major streams namely Rishi-Ganga, Unta, Hanuman Ganga, Tons, Giri and Ashan. The combined stream flows through the Shivalik range of hills in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh.

The river enters into the plains at the Dak Phatthar where it is regulated through weir and diverted into a canal for hydropower generation and irrigation. The river is again diverted into Western Yamuna Canal and Eastern Yamuna Canal for irrigation from Tajewala barrage in the Yamuna Nagar district of Haryana. The river regains its water from ground water accrual and feeding canal through Somnadi (seasonal stream) just upstream of Kalanaur and traverses a length of about 1150 km through three states i.e. Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh.

Delhi is situated on the banks of river Yamuna. However, here the river is in its most polluted form. The survey of the Yamuna indicates that most of the time, in a stretch of about 500 kilometres, the river is in a bad shape, with water quality below desired level for designated use. In the dry season four distinct gradients of pollution load can be discerned in the river stretch between Wazirabad and Etawah. According to the reports of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), the stretch between Wazirabad and Okhla is the most heavily polluted one, carrying the massive input of wastewater from Delhi. This input has set off a progressive series of chemical and biological changes in the downstream water.

The availability of water in the Yamuna greatly varies with time and space since precipitation is confined to only three months in a year and that too varies greatly. Most of the water flows in the Yamuna, nearly eighty per cent in the monsoon months—July, August and September. Whatever water flows in non-monsoon period, during October to June, is extensively used for irrigation and drinking leaving very little or no water in the river to flow.

Finally, the Yamuna joins the Ganges after running for more than a thousand kilometers, and with more than eleven tributaries at Prayagraj (the king of all confluences) also known as Prayag or Allahabad. The holy city of Allahabad is also called Triveni Sangam, literally, a three-way junction of rivers. The third river being the mythical Saraswati is supposed to be an underground river. New Delhi—the capital of India, Mathura—the birthplace of Lord Krishna, and Agra—the site of Taj Mahal, are three major historical places on the banks of river Yamuna.

Alternative Water Supply Options

Water conservation is the most important step in the direction of finding solutions to all issues concerning the conservation of the environment and ecology. Each one of us is responsible for conservation. There is a need to change one’s attitudes and habits. The water supply for irrigation and other purposes can be done by various other low cost and high reward schemes. The alternatives focus on the use of water for irrigation and other agriculture, landscaping, drinking water and other municipal uses. Water harvesting is one such simple and important step that can effectively contribute to water conservation.

The growing human population and rising standards of living in the modern world, raise an eminent shortage of the supplies of fresh water. In India, except for a small part of the nation, almost the entire rainfall occurs during three to four monsoon months. Rain water harvesting is an effective way to store and use rain water. Water harvesting means the collection, storage and efficient utilisation of rain water and runoff water. The rain water flowing over land or through streams, gullies, creeks etc. spring protection, tapping subsurface shallow seepage or ground water flow below the stream bed through shallow wells should be stored. Roof rain water harvesting is being given special importance in both rural and urban areas and particularly in areas where water quality problems exist. The rain water that falls on the rooftops can be harvested for groundwater recharge using appropriate techniques. This method may be applied for the roofs of existing houses or buildings as well as those under construction.

The state authority significantly contributed to rain water harvesting projects in various areas including the national capital region. The officials announced surprising results of increase in water levels in many parts of the city. The results prove that rainwater harvesting has improved the water quality. The estimate of the Delhi Jal Board suggests that a total of two million cubic metres of water can be utilised for groundwater recharge at a cost of about 189 million rupees.

There is an example of the huge cost differences between the top-down establishment approaches to water management and community-led approaches that comes from Alwar district in the state of Rajasthan. The water harvesting structure of this region is locally known as Johad that is a prime example of an inexpensive and simple traditional technology that is effective in terms of recharging the ground water of the entire region. These structures are simple mud and concave shaped barriers built across the slopes to arrest the rainwater run-off with a high embankment on three sides while the fourth side is left open for the water to enter.

Tarun Bharat Sangh has helped villagers to build and to restore thousands of water harvesting structures based on mainly earthen embankments or small concrete dams across seasonally flooded gullies for more than a decade. These structures impound water that soaks into the ground in order to recharge groundwater. Then the water is drawn from wells. The water collected during monsoon penetrates into the sub-soil. This recharges the ground water and improves the soil moisture in vast areas, mostly down-stream. The ground water can be drawn from traditional open wells, built and maintained by the villagers themselves without any input from outside.

Tarun Bharat Sangh is a non-government organisation, headed by Ramon Magsaysay Award recipient Rajendra Singh. According to calculations, around 700,000 people benefited from improved access to water for household use, farm animals and crops in a couple of decades. The organisation has contributed around Rs. 70 million to the cost of the water harvesting structures. This works out to a cost of Rs. 500 per hectare irrigated and Rs. 100 per person supplied with drinking water. By comparison, supplying one person with water from the notorious Sardar Sarovar Dam on Narmada River will cost Rs. 10,000, and supplying one hectare with irrigation water from the mega project will cost Rs. 170,000 which is 340 times more than the cost in Alwar.

Mythical Yamuna River

The Yamuna, although a tributary of the Ganga, is virtually a river by itself. The river has been referred to in the ancient epic the Mahabharata besides numerous Puranas. The Yamuna is also known as Jamuna. The goddess of the river Yamuna is known as ‘Yami’. According to the Bhagavat Purana, she is the sister of Yama, the god of death. She is the daughter of the Sun (Surya) god, and his wife Sanjana. Yamuna is also connected to the religious beliefs surrounding Krishna.

The Yamuna originates less than a hundred miles east of the source of Bhagirathi from the Bundar Poonch glacier located in the district of Uttarkashi in the state of Uttarakhand. It grows from Yamunotri, in the Himalayas and flows parallel to the Ganga and a little to the south for most of its course before merging with the Ganges. The Yamuna traverses a total length of around 1370 kilometres or 851 miles before it merges.

The river flows towards the south direction through the Himalayan foothills and onto the plains of north India along the Uttar Pradesh and Haryana state border. Besides being a major tributary of river Ganges, Yamunotri is also a holy place of the Hindus. In the upper course of 200 kilometres, Yamuna draws water from several major streams namely Rishi-Ganga, Unta, Hanuman Ganga, Tons, Giri and Ashan. The combined stream flows through the Shivalik range of hills in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh.

The river enters into the plains at the Dak Phatthar where it is regulated through weir and diverted into a canal for hydropower generation and irrigation. The river is again diverted into Western Yamuna Canal and Eastern Yamuna Canal for irrigation from Tajewala barrage in the Yamuna Nagar district of Haryana. The river regains its water from ground water accrual and feeding canal through Somnadi (seasonal stream) just upstream of Kalanaur and traverses a length of about 1150 km through three states i.e. Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh.

Delhi is situated on the banks of river Yamuna. However, here the river is in its most polluted form. The survey of the Yamuna indicates that most of the time, in a stretch of about 500 kilometres, the river is in a bad shape, with water quality below desired level for designated use. In the dry season four distinct gradients of pollution load can be discerned in the river stretch between Wazirabad and Etawah. According to the reports of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), the stretch between Wazirabad and Okhla is the most heavily polluted one, carrying the massive input of wastewater from Delhi. This input has set off a progressive series of chemical and biological changes in the downstream water.

The availability of water in the Yamuna greatly varies with time and space since precipitation is confined to only three months in a year and that too varies greatly. Most of the water flows in the Yamuna, nearly eighty per cent in the monsoon months—July, August and September. Whatever water flows in non-monsoon period, during October to June, is extensively used for irrigation and drinking leaving very little or no water in the river to flow. Finally, the Yamuna joins the Ganges after running for more than a thousand kilometers, and with more than eleven tributaries at Prayagraj (the king of all confluences) also known as Prayag or Allahabad. The holy city of Allahabad is also called Triveni Sangam, literally, a three-way junction of rivers. The third river being the mythical Saraswati is supposed to be an underground river. New Delhi—the capital of India, Mathura—the birthplace of Lord Krishna, and Agra—the site of Taj Mahal, are three major historical places on the banks of river Yamuna.

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